Parents Against Underage Smartphones

                    To Make Children Free

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Howley, D.P. (2013). Children and Smartphones: What’s the Right Age? Laptop Part of Tom’s Guide. Retrieved from http://blog.laptopmag.com/kids-smartphones-right-age
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Williams, A. (2014). 7 Steps to Ease Your Tween into a Smartphone. TeenSafe. Retrieved from http://www.teensafe.com/blog/smartphones/7-steps-ease-tween-smartphone/Type your paragraph here.

Another great one, "Virtual Child" by Chris Rowan

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Christakis, D. A., Ramirez, J. S. B., & Ramirez, J. M. (2012). Overstimulation of newborn mice leads to behavioral differences
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Garrison, M., & Christakis, D. (2005). A teacher in the living room: educational media for babies, toddlers and preschoolers.
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Garrison, M. M., Liekweg, K., & Christakis, D. A. (2011). Media use and child sleep: The impact of content, timing, and
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Ginsburg, K. R. (2007). The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child
bonds. Pediatrics, 119(1), 182-191. http://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-2697
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A meta-analysis. JAMA, 305(23), 2448-2455. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.812
Guernsey, L. (2012). Interactive screen time for kids: Do educational iPad apps teach toddlers anything? Retrieved from
Harding, E. (2015). Headteacher said iPads and iPhones was impeding children’s speech. Retrieved from
Harrison, M., Burns, C., McGuinness, M., Heslin, J., & Murphy, N. (2006). Influence of a health education intervention on
physical activity and screen time in primary school children: Switch Off—Get Active. Journal of Science and Medicine in
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He, M., Irwin, J. D., Sangster Bouck, L. M., Tucker, P., & Pollett, G. L. (2005). Screen-viewing behaviors among preschoolers
parents’ perceptions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(2), 120-125. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.04.004
Higuchi, S., Motohashi, Y., Liu, Y., Ahara, M., & Kaneko, Y. (2003). Effects of VDT tasks with a bright display at night on
melatonin, core temperature, heart rate, and sleepiness. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(5), 1773-1776.
International Telecommunications Union. (2015). ICT facts and figures—The world in 2015. Retrieved from
Irwin, L. G., Siddiqi, A., & Hertzman, C. (2007). Early child development: A powerful equalizer (Final report). Geneva:
University of British Columbia. Retrieved from http://www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsacd/cd66/EarlyChild/EarlyChild.html
Jackson, D. M., Djafarian, K., Stewart, J., & Speakman, J. R. (2009). Increased television viewing is associated with elevated
body fatness but not with lower total energy expenditure in children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(4),
1031-1036. http://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26746
Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J. C., Thompson, D., & Greaves, K. A. (2005). BMI from 3-6 y of age is predicted by TV
viewing and physical activity, not diet. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 29(6), 557-564.
Kirkorian, H. L., Pempek, T. A., Murphy, L. A., Schmidt, M. E., & Anderson, D. R. (2009). The impact of background
television on parent-child interaction. Child Development, 80(5), 1350-1359.
Kubota, T., Uchiyama, M., Suzuki, H., Shibui, K., Kim, K., Tan, X., … Inoué, S. (2002). Effects of nocturnal bright light on
saliva melatonin, core body temperature and sleep propensity rhythms in human subjects. Neuroscience Research, 42(2),
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Lapierre, M. A., Piotrowski, J. T., & Linebarger, D. L. (2012). Background television in the homes of US children. Pediatrics,
130(5), 839-846. http://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2581
Lauricella, A. R., Pempek, T. A., Barr, R., & Calvert, S. L. (2010). Contingent computer interactions for young children’s object
retrieval success. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(5), 362-369.
Lerner, C., & Barr, R. (2014). Screen sense: Setting the record straight research-based guidelines for screen use for children
under 3 years old. Washington D.C.
Lewin, T. (2009). No einstein in your crib? Get a refund. New York Times. New York. Retrieved from
Lillard, A. S., Drell, M. B., Richey, E. M., Boguszewski, K., & Smith, E. D. (2015). Further examination of the immediate impact
of television on children’s executive function. Developmental Psychology, 51(6), 792-805.
Linebarger, D. L., & Walker, D. (2005). Infants’ and toddlers’ television viewing and language outcomes. American Behavioral
Scientist, 48(5), 624-645. http://doi.org/10.1177/0002764204271505
Locker, M. (2015). This place just made it illegal to give kids too much screen time. Retrieved from
Mendelsohn, A. L., Berkule, S. B., Tomopoulos, S., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Huberman, H. S., Alvir, J., & Dreyer, B. P.
(2008). Infant television and video exposure associated with limited parent-child verbal interactions in low socioeconomic
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Mendelsohn, A. L., Brockmeyer, C. A., Dreyer, B. P., Fierman, A. H., Berkule-Silberman, S. B., & Tomopoulos, S. (2010). Do
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Mistry, K. B., Minkovitz, C. S., Strobino, D. M., & Borzekowski, D. L. G. (2007). Children’s television exposure and behavioral
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Moser, A., Zimmermann, L., Dickerson, K., Grenell, A., Barr, R., & Gerhardstein, P. (2015). They can interact, but can they learn?
Toddlers’ transfer learning from touchscreens and television. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 137, 137-155.
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Radesky, J., Miller, A. L., Rosenblum, K. L., Appugliese, D., Kaciroti, N., & Lumeng, J. C. (2015). Maternal mobile device use
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Schmidt, M. E., Pempek, T. A., Kirkorian, H. L., Lund, A. F., & Anderson, D. R. (2008). The effects of background television on
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This page contains the start of a collection of scholarly articles on this vast subject, these have not been cited by our organization, they are merely presented as a starting point for your own further research.  The goal is to have them organized according to subjects and relevance.  Thanks to Chris Rowan for putting together the fact sheet.